By Sunil Bhardwaj


1. Quantitative Analysis: The metal salt solutions which are coloured for e.g. Cu (II), Fe (III), Ni (II) etc and some organic coloured compounds can be easily analyzed quantitatively by using Beer Lambert’s Law. Thus, from OD we can calculate the concentration of the solution.

2. Identification of functional group (Qualitative analysis): The spectrophotometers are the instruments working on the principle of \({ \lambda }_{ max }\). This \({ \lambda }_{ max }\) is constant for each functional group. If we know ?max for the particular sample, we can decide the type of functional group present in it, as \({ \lambda }_{ max }\) is characteristic property.

3. Distinguish between geometrical isomer: Each geometrical isomer have its own characteristic \({ \lambda }_{ max }\), therefore from \({ \lambda }_{ max }\) we identify geometrical isomers. E.g. Cinnamic acid exists in Cis and Trans form.

4. Chemical Analysis: With the help of spectrophotometer we can find out the rate constant (K) of any chemical reaction. As we know the first order reaction. $$ K = \frac { 2.303 }{ t } \log { \left( \frac { a }{ a-x } \right) } $$ Where a is initial concentration and (a - x) is final concentration.

We will take some ester and keep in the instrument and find out the absorbance then with the help of Beer-Lamberts Law we can find out the concentration.

Now add some reagent the reaction will take place at the time t. Now we will find out the O.D. of the solution in the cuvette which is (a-x) then by using the above eqn. for first order we can find out the K (rate constant).

Similarly we can find out the K for zero order, second order and so on by using its expression.

5. Determination and estimation of tautomers: Keto and Enol form are present in equilibrium which can be determined by spectrophotometer. E.g. Acetoacetic ester exists in two tautomeric forms which show different \({ \lambda }_{ max }\) values.

MCQ on Optical Methods from Analytical Chemistry
Prof. Gianfranco Coletti

Shared publicly - 2019-08-23 00:00:00

Don’t want your columns to simply stack in some grid tiers? Use a combination of different classes for each tier as needed. See the example below for a better idea of how it all works.

Prof. Maheshwar Sharon

Shared publicly - 2019-08-24 00:00:00

For grids that are the same from the smallest of devices to the largest, use the .col and .col-* classes. Specify a numbered class when you need a particularly sized column; otherwise, feel free to stick to


Shared publicly - 2023-02-28 11:09:52

this is


Shared publicly - 2023-02-28 10:48:10


Latest News

  • Become an Instructor 4 March, 2018

    Apply to join the passionate instructors who share their expertise and knowledge with the world. You'll collaborate with some of the industry's best producers, directors, and editors so that your content is presented in the best possible light..

More Chapters

  • Chromatography
  • Solvent Extraction
  • Gravimetric Analysis
  • Optical Methods
  • Polarography
  • Other Subjects

  • English
  • Applied Physics
  • Environmental Studies
  • Physical Chemistry
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Soft Skills
  • Engineering Drawing
  • General Medicine
  • Mathematics
  • Patente B Italia
  • Adult Education
  • Engineering Chemistry
  • Conceptual Physics
  • Aptitude