By Sunil Bhardwaj


The fluorescence and phosphorescence depends on following factors.

1. Fluorescence and phosphorescence depends on temperature and pH of the solution.

2. Association, Dissociation of solute with solvent will affect the fluorescence and phosphorescence.

3. Molecules with electron donating groups like -OH and –NH2 are strongly fluorescence.

4. Electrons withdrawing groups like -COOH, -N=N-, -NO2 and halides decreases florescence.

5. Heavy atoms like chlorine, bromine and iodine cause the un-pairing of electrons. As a result the singlet state gets converted into a triplet state and the chances of fluorescence occurring are greatly reduced.

6. Some groups like -NH4+, -SO3H and alkyl groups do not have, any affect on the fluorescence and phosphorescence phenomenon.

7. The introduction of an atom of higher atomic number, in to a (pi) electron system decreases fluorescence and increases phosphorescence.

MCQ on Optical Methods from Analytical Chemistry
Prof. Gianfranco Coletti

Shared publicly - 2019-08-23 00:00:00

Don’t want your columns to simply stack in some grid tiers? Use a combination of different classes for each tier as needed. See the example below for a better idea of how it all works.

Prof. Maheshwar Sharon

Shared publicly - 2019-08-24 00:00:00

For grids that are the same from the smallest of devices to the largest, use the .col and .col-* classes. Specify a numbered class when you need a particularly sized column; otherwise, feel free to stick to


Shared publicly - 2023-02-28 11:09:52

this is


Shared publicly - 2023-02-28 10:48:10


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