so our next topic is land resources land is very important to us and it is the solid portion of the Earth's surface because human civilization has taken place on the land it also fulfills the basic need of human civilization such as foods clothes shelters etc it is used in agriculture it acts as a store point for the basic resources like groundwater minerals and fossil fuels it also protects from high temperature of Earth's core it provides habitat for most of the flora and fauna and also it regulates the water and carbon cycles it becomes a dumping ground for the solid and liquid waste so now let's talk about the soil profile soil profile is the different horizon's' or the layers in the soil which is having different different colors textures root structure and rock fragments so depending upon the different compositions the layers are divided into different parts and they are the they are the different horizon's' named as oae b and c layers and all this is known as soil profile so let's talk about the first layer and that is Oh Who Must or organic layer this does not contain any soil and it is the uppermost layer and below that there is the top layer topsoil or a layer so this two layer immensely contains of the of the humans rich you may switch is rich organic material of plants and animals origin so this is only covered with the plant leaves and leaf lettuce needle streaks or mosses so this is only layer up to two feet a layer or top tree second is E or elevated or ozone and this is the leeching layer this is also called as leeching layer this is approved to feet it is light in color mainly because of the sands and silt because this contains the large amount of leached materials from the topsoil next comes the subsoil that is a B layer and it is from ten to thirty feet and it contains mainly the clays and minerals like iron aluminum copper etcetera and the color of this layer changes depending upon the composition of different mineral materials then I was the parent material that is C layer it is from to feet and it is composed of large rocks so it is a big lump of the broken bed rocks so and there is nothing more so everything is rocky there and finally is the bedrock that is our layer it is below feet and it is the deepest soil in the horizon and it is containing only the big rocks continuous mass of bedrock so this is the last layer now let's talk about the function of soil is very important for us because it plays a very significant role in a nutrient cycle it gives the basis of the agriculture production service stores the water and regulates the water cycle and it also decomposes the pollutions and filters the groundwater it produces most of the clay and brick making industries it provides a foundation for building also so now let's talk about the land degradation weather causes effect and control measures so what is the land degradation the fertility of the land support the growth and productivity of the natural relations and because of any natural or man-made calamities if the fertility of land is going away or it is reducing that means we can say the land degradation is happening and what are the major causes for this there are two types of causes one is natural factor one is androgynous factors natural factors includes heavy rains heavy speed wind and storms natural disasters like earthquake floods and prolonged and rot etc as well as expansion of deserts and soil and replenish means man-made causes and they are including mainly mining which generates lots lots of waste organization before restriction and excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers and finally in the still discharge and no constructions of dams roads and canals so what are the causes of soil erosion so there are two things one is soil erosion and one is a certification so what is soil erosion soil erosion is the removal of the topsoil by the wind high speed wind or high speed rain or water so that is soil erosion know what are the main causes of the soil erosion first is deforestation initialization pollution or flood or creasing all reason means that eating grasses in back cutters if they are eating too much of grasses that is not good for the soil and so he goes away also so that is one thing another is agriculture mismanagement that means poor crop rotation excessive input of the chemicals or use of heavy machinery and finally large violent winds also causes soil erosion and what are the effects it decreases the productivity of the land secondly the certification of land half and the reduction in the agricultural land at the bank of the river and the position of the soil in the riverbeds and channels causing death in the diversion diversion of their natural flow and hence living room disasters so how can we control this how can we control the soil erosion there are three different options for depending upon the slope of the land so for the milder slope we can go for two things one is a reduced tillage and secondly stubble mulching so we can reduce the channels or the delicious or we can cover the land with the stubble so that is double munching for the gentle slopes we can go for vegetative burns or counter burns strip cropping or counter counter cultivation so what is vegetative once it is making burns with the vegetables which can hold the land for let you stronger with the stronger roots secondly counter cultivation is cultivating on the different levels of the land so if some part of the land is at the higher level we can grow something else over there so they can hold the land thirdly crop strip cropping strip cupping means the crops are planted in the form of strips with some bigger crops and then some smaller crops and finally counterparts contrabands means making burns with the help of some stones or Mars or other things for the steeper slope we can go for directly terracina terracing means cutting the land in the form of terraces and holding the things over there there are some other methods also which can prevent the soil erosion and they are like control of over grazing don't allow the cattles to eat too much of grasses then construction of small check dams so that water can and so that the flow of water can be regulated next is afforestation on and so if there are any barren land we can go for the plantation and other things prevention of exclusion of rocks so we can prevent the removal of the rocks because rocks can hold the land also and finally equitable use of the water sources we can sprinkle water because dry land can go over easily vinta with a wind so now let's talk about desertification so what is death certification it is the conversion of the fertile land into an infertile desert so that is the desert evasion conversion of fertile land into an infertile desert land is called the desert if occation and what are the main causes they are again divided into two part like natural factors and anthropologist so in naturally it can be included that very low rainfall excessive evaporation and washed difference in diurnal temperatures burner britches means daytime and nighttime temperature so enduring data and the temperature was very high while during the night time the temperature is very low and finally high salinity of the soil so enters benefactor on man-made factors are continuous cutting of the trees over grazing eating or eating of the grasses by animals over irrigation too much of water and excessive plugging and excessive use of fertilizers so they are some of the causes of death certification what are the effects it increases the rapid soil erosion poor soil quality and unfavorable climate it also changes the climate low water table water table goes down salty and hard water comes out huge economic losses also it gives the economic losses so how can we control this just go just go for promoting large-scale plantation oak trees because trees can can control the desert education changing agriculture practices and promoting trial and farming can help also the development of a path just like grassy lands and control of the over grazing will reduce the desert if ocation and promoting equitable use of the water resources only use the requirement required amount of the water no X small s development of water catchment areas we must catch some water from the rain from anywhere else so these are catchment areas like lakes like pawns like other things so that was all about the land resources
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