By Sunil Bhardwaj

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okay let's talk about the water pollution the addition of various organic and inorganic substances that change the physical and chemical property of water thereby leading to the terminal effect on living organisms and reducing water use ability is termed as the word cohesion so any contamination which is added to water which is changing the property which is not usable now is considered as the water pollution there are many causes for the word pollution and they are divided into two part one is natural cause one is man-made caused so in case of natural cause first of all soil erosion due to rain flood and high-speed wind may cause the pollution in water the position of dead and decaying remains of plants and animal will also decrease the property or degrade the property of the water and that is also one of the major pollutant in case of man-made causes series and other waste so including human excreta paper clothes soap detergent etcetera which we are throwing everything in the water bodies so that can be considered as the sea wage and other waste industrial wastes effluents such as oil grease plastic metal acids and other toxic chemicals coming from the industries are considered as the industrial wastes then it comes to the agricultural waste fertilizers pesticides etc which we are adding to our agriculture plants then it goes into the water bodies and that can be considered as a agricultural waste next is human activities like bath in clothing and washing will also contaminate the water bodies customs and traditions disposal of dead bodies immersion of idols of gods and gods goddesses into the water may also pollute the water and lastly radiator discharges nuclear waste dumped by the nuclear test nuclear reactors and nuclear accident etcetera can be consider the radio to discharge to the water bodies now let's talk about the sources again there are two types of sources one is point source and one is non point source so what is point source pollutants and at the points to source pollutants enter the water at a single point see which to for example see which treatment plant and factories this can be considered as the point source they can be regulated easily through the law non-point sources pollutants enter the water bodies over large areas surfaces run of mining route a large area surfaces surfaces run water off run off mining reached municipal waste acid rain and soil erosion are the example of non point source you can see in the graph in the image that there are there is a river flowing in between this and there are some villages there are some villages also there there are some villages and some factories available on this land so wherever this factory is contaminating the river that can be considered as the point source because they are contaminating this River only at one single point why the people from the villages they are not contaminating this they are fundamental this river on not at a single point so that can be considered as the non point source so let's talk about the pollutants what are the different pollutants in is of water pollution first is sediments so excessive amount of the soil particles carried by the flowing of the water or but the soil erosion that will accumulate at the end of the river and that is considered as the sediments sediments generally reduces the quality of the water it decreases the photosynthesis also it destroys a feeding ground for the fishes clocks the reservoirs as well as the channels so they are not good for the water bodies second is oxygen demanding wastes some of the organic wastes such as the animal manure and plant derbies that are decomposed by bacteria and for this decomposition the bacterias they need extra oxygen and they take this oxygen from the dissolved oxygen of the water thus decreasing the oxygen content in the water so these bacterias they deplete the oxygen and cause death to the fish so they can be considered as the oxygen demanding wastes infectious microorganisms parasitic worms viruses and bacterias form from infection infected organisms as well as the human and animal waste they are responsible for the waterborne diseases so these type of bacteria viruses and parasites warms they decrease the quality of water and water becomes undrinkable and that's what they are considered as a pollutant organic compounds nowadays for daily use is very dependent on so many organic compounds like like for cleaning agents like surface run off like industry effluents and so many things and at the end all these chemicals goes to the water bodies and they pollute the things inorganic nutrients substances like nitrogen and phosphorus from animal waste plant residue and fertilizers run off into the nearby water bodies and they are they are the main costs of the eutrophication in organic chemicals like acid salts and heavy metals like lead and mercury from the industrial effluents surface runoff and household cleaning agents they can go into the water bodies and then they make it unfit for the aquatic system as well as for the drinking purposes radioactive substances reached from the nuclear plant nuclear power plants nuclear weapons and mining and refining and other ores such as substances causes cancer and birth defects and when they are liberated into the water we can say that they are also polluting the water bodies thermal pollution when hot water from the distal surface process is liberated into the nearby lake or river the temperature of the lake or river increases which generally which is not suitable for the aquatic life like fishes like plants and other things and in that case all this vicious dies because of the high temperature so this type of pollution is considered as the thermal pollution where we are liberating only water but the temperature of the water is different than the normal temperature okay now let's talk about the effect of water pollution first of all if we are drinking bad water or not a good quality water then we can suffer from from many diseases such as various diseases of central nervous system it can damage to the liver it can also damage to the brain and give me and there are many many continents contaminated many diseases which are caused by the drinking of the contaminated water which leads to the various waterborne diseases such as diarrhea typhoid cholera infectious hepatitis jaundice etcetera are the very common diseases and these are mostly seen in the rainy season when the quality of water is really bad and what are the effects on plants nitrates and phosphate fertilizers used to increase the nitrogen use to increases the nitrogen content of the soil and it goes into the water nearby and it may cause to them it may increase the growth of certain plants on the surface of the water bodies that is the eutrophication of the water bodies polluted water contains high concentration of heavy metals become it becomes toxic for plants high turbidity also causes rate of the photosynthesis the large amount of known and unknown aquatic plants have become extinct so these are some of the effect on plants effect on plants from water pollution what is certification notification is the nutrient enrichment of the league ponds when we are using too much of fertilizers and pesticides all this goes into the nearby lake and if there is more fertilizers in the lake there will be growth of algae too much of growth of the led and the lake becomes greenish in color and in that case the other plants they will not get enough nutrients and they will die also the greenish surface of the water does not allow the allows the radiation to pass into the water and thus producing the photosynthesis of inside the inside the eat plants of the inside lake so it will make them die effects on animals all these the pollution of the water also affects the animals first of all harmful chemicals and pollutants in water affects survival of aquatic organism we are also losing a large of number of aquatic biodiversity also toxins present in water causes poisoning of the aquatic plants and animals which leads to the series health problem to human beings also some of the animals like the stir toys and they stuck into the plastic caps plastic rings and other things and they suffer for the lifetime of this of this type of suffering similarly some of the birds believe thinks that these are some fishes these pink balls are some fishes but actually they are plastics and finally they eat it and they die also there are many images or many possible cases where you can see these animals are suffering from the plastic from the pollution of the water bodies and pollution of groundwater so even on the surface water is polluted but then also even we are having the groundwater which is also polluted you can see in this image that it says that 33 percent of the groundwater in India is undrinkable so excessive extraction of groundwater leads to the natural pollution of groundwater examples are fluoride and arsenic contamination so if you are taking too much of the groundwater it will get contaminated with the fluoride and arsenic contamination ground waters receives pollutants from the septic tank landfills hazardous waste dump and underground tanks containing petrol oil chemicals etcetera so all these things which are over the ground can leach to the underground water and make it unusable biomagnification biomagnification is the increase in the concentration of a substance such as the best result that occurs in the food chain the pollutants enter the first organism in a food chain when the second organism is in the chain consumes the first one the pollutant in two moves into the second organisms and as we move towards the high heat level in the tropical chain in the tropical food chain the concentration of this pollutant goes on increasing and it goes on accumulating and that's why it is called as bio accumulation as we go up in the level of the ecological pyramid there is energy loss hands at each succeeding level the predator consumes more of the prey as a result the organism at higher level have greater concentration of the pollutant and this magnification is called as bio magnification so how can we control this or how can we count under what are the control measures for the water pollution first of all stop dumping of non biodegradable waste try to go for the recycling of this then go for the bioremediation bio demolition means use of biological methods for cleaning the water like use of bacteria and some viruses which can eat the dirt from the water so that chemical students bioremediation minimize the use of fertilizers and pesticides always reduce the use of fertilizers and pesticide control on human activities like the like some of the customs and traditions be much we must control then there are civic and industry waste treatment plant a reduction at source and finally neutralization of the waste material some other things are like oil spillage oil spillage can be treated or can be removed by using the oligo stearic acid specific bacterias like pseudonymous pot idea can also be used to eliminate the oil spills ships can be painted by antifouling paints and also we can avoid the disposal of hot water in the water bodies just cool it down to the room temperature and then we can dispose the water reduce the discharging of solid waste such as plastic bags glass paper and other suspended matters see which and in distilled water should be treated before discarding into the sea and force the strict laws for disposal of poisonous and hazardous substances our chemicals so that was all about the water pollution thank you for more study materials like learning materials like MCQs like other question answers and problems related to your coursework please visit admirals dot DK you