By Sunil Bhardwaj

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if you like my videos please click on the like button and share it with your friends also subscribe for the new videos so our next topic is radiation pollution so what is the meaning of radiation some of the materials in this world they can produce some kind of invisible rays and these rays are having very high energy which can I own eyes some of the materials or you know some of the living things and in that case it's very dangerous for the human beings as well as other living materials and that kind of radiations can be considered as the radiation pollution so radiation pollution is the emission of any form of ionizing or non izing reddish organizing radiations as a result of natural or human activity so this is radiation pollution and some of the material which is producing the radiation they are plutonium cesium strontium or uranium the they are also known as radioactive elements Radio elements immense dangerous radiation that can literally knock electrons off the atoms of our cells disturbing or destroying cell functions or even causing cell to mutate into cancer cells so these are the possibilities so let's talk about the nuclear energy first of all nucleus itself is made up of neutrons and protons while electrons they move around the nucleus so if electrons are taking part in the reaction then we can say it is a chemical reaction well if nucleus is taking part in the reaction then we can say it is a nuclear reaction so there are two types of reaction one is chemical reaction involving electrons while nuclear reaction involving nucleus and there are two types of nuclear reactions also one is fission and one is fusion fission means when a bigger nucleus breaks into two smaller nucleus then it will be called as fission reaction while when there is two smaller nuclei they fuse together to make a bigger nuclei then can be considered as a fusion reaction generally fusion reaction is the source of energy on sun where for hydrogen at me nucleus they combine to make a one helium nucleus so this is fusion reaction well for hydrogen nucleus they fuse together to make a helium and helium nucleus and what is the chain reaction chain reaction means if we have started a reaction of only one nucleus and it continues by themselves only then it can be considered as the chain reaction for example here a neutron is used to break the uranium- and it breaks into two daughter nuclei while during this breaking process again it produces three more neutrons and these neutrons again break new uranium- and the reaction continues till there is no more uranium piece available in the material so even if we are starting the reaction with the one nucleus then also it completes with the all the nucleus and this type of reaction is known as chain reaction these chain reactions are very difficult to stop because they continues by themselves so how can we control the chain reaction for controlling the chain reaction we can use the control rods Gendry control rods are made up of boron silver indium or cadmium all these materials are having capacity are having the properties of absorbing the neutrons so if there are neutrons are produced chain reaction will proceed but if neutrons are absorbed by these control rods then the reaction will stop so we are using control rods made up of all these materials like boron silicon silver indium or cadmium which can absorb the neutrons and they can control the chain reaction similarly as the reaction produce proceeds there is formation of large amount of heat and this heat can be removed by using the coolant and generally we are using water as a coolant over here so if you know if we see over all the nuclear power plants working then we can see there is a main reactor where generally this reaction is happening chain reaction is happening and there are control rods by which we can control the chain reaction and heat produced over this in this reactor is transferred into the steam chamber and where the heat is used to boil the water and water is now converted into the steam this steam is used to move the turbine and finally produce the electricity and once it is moving the turbine it cools down and it circulates back into the reactor so stream is generally used for the production of the electricity and if a nuclear reaction is not controlled then what happens then this type of explosion are possible and this is known as nuclear explosion [Applause] [Music] [Music] so what are the causes of the nuclear accident first of all nuclear reactors are very safe because all the materials are used and there is no waste product is generated but in case if there are accidents then there are possibility that radioactive material is liberated into the atmosphere so it is very dangerous if only in case of accidents and what are the main causes of the nuclear accident first of all natural disasters and there are many examples like Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident which was happened in and this caused a tsunami and an earthquake which destroys the nuclear reactor then there is improper following of the procedure if the controller or the nuclear reaction controller is not following the proper procedure then there are chances of nuclear accident for example Chernobyl disaster and then if there are faulty in the instrument or instrument in structure of of reactor so if there is not proper instrument available then also there are possibility of nuclear accidents and also at the end malfunctioning of the system if system is not working properly then also there are chances of accidents let's discuss more about some of the accidents first of all Chernobyl disaster it was happened in and it was because of the human error and proper safety standards caused a terrible explosion it was a nuclear accident at Chernobyl power station and in this accident people died from the radioactive exposure and almost lakh people have been contacted for the cancers from high levels of radiation exposure so this was one of the accident because of the poor safety standards and also let's move another part that is three miles Iceland in this case in this case in the reactor that was little bit damaged and it leaked radioactive material into the nearby river and almost , gallons of radioactive waste directly went into the river and this has exposed to almost lakh , movements as well as children's across all that particular area so that was again a big disaster of radioactive pollution into the atmosphere there were more examples like this for example Fukushima Daiichi this happened in where because of the tsunami and earthquake inside the water inside the ocean and the desert in the nuclear power plant was break broken and all the radioactive material went into the sea so this was again disaster so what is the effect of nuclear accident first of all if nuclear accident happens all the radioactive material is liberated into the atmosphere and because of this exposure of the radioactive material there are possibility of thyroid cancer because this thyroid cancer can be caused because of the radioactive iodine which is a very common radioactive material used in the reactors so it increases the chances of thyroid cancer then loss of white blood cells and platelets this also increases the white blood cells and fluxes which impair impairs immune system which is the immune system in human beings and it may cause hammering hammering means the blood is leaking inside the vessels or inside the veins so this is called as hammering it also it can also give the leukemia leukemia is the skin cancer leukemia is generally a blood cancer which is caused due to the X the gamma rays and then there is bioaccumulation all of the radioactive material is accumulated in the food chain and finally there is chances of genetic mutations which causes changes in DNA sequences you can see here the fingers of the baby which are sticking all together and this is because of the genetic mutations some of the non-biological effects are like loss of infrastructure first of all all the buildings bridges they undergo destructions then cost of cleanup cleanup also needs a large amount of money almost billion dollars have been spent to clean the -mile eyes and disasters then there are explosion it may causes the destruction of the human life and other life forms then evacuate an immediate evacuation of people is in affected area is a must so we need to evacuate the people then harm to ozone layers the explosion also causes the nitrogen oxides to form from the oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere which depletes the ozone layer so this is again one more thing so how can we prevent the nuclear accidents first of all proper disposal of the radioactive waste radioactive waste cannot be dumped anywhere so it should be dumped in a sealed back inside the unused minds then awareness among the people people should be aware about about the nuclear radiations proper transportation must be there then making of violation of procedure is a criminal offence we should follow the procedure exactly as it is the ban on nuclear weapons then strong infrastructure dense trees should be planted around the atomic power plants our finally unnecessary x-ray experiments or examination should be avoided lead blood shields let shield should be used by workers and during nuclear installation various efforts including the process of the site selection its design construction operation and its short-term and long-term effects should be seriously considered to control the radiation for more study materials like learning materials like MCQs like other question answers and problems related to your coursework please visit admirals dot DK you