By Sunil Bhardwaj

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The classification of dyes on the basis of Chemical Constitution:

1. Nitro Dyes: They posses Nitro Group (-NO2) as chromophore and Hydroxy group (-OH) as auxochrome. E.g. Naphthol yellow S.

Naphthol yellow S.
Naphthol yellow S

2. Nitroso Dyes: They posses Nitroso Group (-NO) as chromophore and Phenolic Hydroxyl group (-OH) as auxochrome. E.g. Gambine Y.

Gambine Y.
Gambine Y.

3. Azo Dyes: They contain azo Group (-N=N-) as chromophore. This azo group is present between two aromatic rings. They are further classified on the basis of nature of auxochrome.

a) Cationic Azo Dyes:

Cationic Azo Dye
Cationic Azo Dye

b) Anionic Azo Dyes:

Anionic Azo Dye
Anionic Azo Dye

c) Ingrain Azo Dyes:

Ingrain Azo Dye
Ingrain Azo Dye

d) Direct Azo Dyes:

Direct Azo Dye
Direct Azo Dye

e) Mordant Azo Dyes:

Mordant Azo Dye
Mordant Azo Dye

f) Disperse Azo Dye:

Disperse Azo Dye
Disperse Azo Dye

g) Reactive Azo Dye:

Reactive Azo Dye
Reactive Azo Dye

4. Diphenyl Methane Dyes: They are characterised by biphenyl methane nucleus. e.g. Auramine

Auramine
Auramine

5. Triphenyl Methane Dyes: They posses quinonoid group as auxochrome. e.g. Malachite Green and Crystal Violet

Malachite Green
Malachite Green
Crystal Violet
Crystal Violet
6. Diphenyl Amine Dyes: e.g. Phenylene Blue.
Phenylene Blue
Phenylene Blue

7. Xanthene Dyes: They are characterised by presence of Xanthene group as auxochrome. e.g. Eosin

Eosin
Eosin

8. Heterocyclic Dyes: They are further classified as,

a) Acridine:

Acridine
Acridine

b) Azine Dye

Azine Dye
Azine Dye

c) Oxazine Dye:

Oxazine Dye
Oxazine Dye

d) Thiazine Dye:

Thiazine Dye
Thiazine Dye

e) Quinolene Dye:

Quinolene Dye
Quinolene Dye

8. Anthraquinone Dyes: Anthraquinone nucleus as chromophore, while NH2, OH, SO3H are auxochrome. They are further classified as,

a) Anthraquinone Acid Dye:

Anthraquinone Acid Dye
Anthraquinone Acid Dye

b) Anthraquinone Disperse Dye:

Anthraquinone Disperse Dye
Anthraquinone Disperse Dye

c) Anthraquinone Vat Dye:

Anthraquinone Vat Dye
Anthraquinone Vat Dye

d) Anthraquinone Reactive Dye:

Anthraquinone Reactive Dye:
Anthraquinone Reactive Dye:

9. Indigo Dyes: These dyes have -CO - C = C - CO - group as chromophore e.g. Indigo

Indigo
Indigo

10. Phthalocyanine Dyes: e.g. Copper Phthalocyanine.

Copper Phthalocyanine
Copper Phthalocyanine

11. Florescent Dyes: e.g. Blankophor WT and Uvitex RS.

Blankophor WT
Blankophor WT
Uvitex RS
Uvitex RS

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