The classification of dyes on the basis of Chemical Constitution:
1. Nitro Dyes: They posses Nitro Group (-NO2) as chromophore and Hydroxy group (-OH) as auxochrome. E.g. Naphthol yellow S.
2. Nitroso Dyes: They posses Nitroso Group (-NO) as chromophore and Phenolic Hydroxyl group (-OH) as auxochrome. E.g. Gambine Y.
3. Azo Dyes: They contain azo Group (-N=N-) as chromophore. This azo group is present between two aromatic rings. They are further classified on the basis of nature of auxochrome.
a) Cationic Azo Dyes:
b) Anionic Azo Dyes:
c) Ingrain Azo Dyes:
d) Direct Azo Dyes:
e) Mordant Azo Dyes:
f) Disperse Azo Dye:
g) Reactive Azo Dye:
4. Diphenyl Methane Dyes: They are characterised by biphenyl methane nucleus. e.g. Auramine
5. Triphenyl Methane Dyes: They posses quinonoid group as auxochrome. e.g. Malachite Green and Crystal Violet
7. Xanthene Dyes: They are characterised by presence of Xanthene group as auxochrome. e.g. Eosin
8. Heterocyclic Dyes: They are further classified as,
b) Azine Dye
c) Oxazine Dye:
d) Thiazine Dye:
e) Quinolene Dye:
8. Anthraquinone Dyes: Anthraquinone nucleus as chromophore, while NH2, OH, SO3H are auxochrome. They are further classified as,
a) Anthraquinone Acid Dye:
b) Anthraquinone Disperse Dye:
c) Anthraquinone Vat Dye:
d) Anthraquinone Reactive Dye:
9. Indigo Dyes: These dyes have -CO - C = C - CO - group as chromophore e.g. Indigo
10. Phthalocyanine Dyes: e.g. Copper Phthalocyanine.
11. Florescent Dyes: e.g. Blankophor WT and Uvitex RS.
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