By Sunil Bhardwaj

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According to Arrhenius, an acid is any substance that can increase the concentration of hydrogen ions in aqueous solution and a base is a substance that increases the hydroxyl ion concentration in water.

The hydrogen ions in water are produced through the ionization of the acid while the hydroxyl ions are produced from the ionization of the base. $$HCl + { H }_{ 2 }O \rightleftharpoons \underset { Hydronium \ Ion }{ { H }_{ 3 }{ O }^{ + } } + { Cl }^{ - }$$ The hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions are extensively hydrated forming a hydrated proton $${ H }_{ 3 }{ O }^{ + }$$, called hydronium ion. $$NaOH \rightleftharpoons Na^{ + } + \underset { Hydroxyl \ Ion }{ { OH }^{ - } }$$ The properties which are characteristic of the Arrhenius acids are those of $${ H }^{ + }$$(aq) and similarly the properties which are characteristic of the Arrhenius bases are due to $${ OH }^{ - }$$(aq)

This definition of acids and bases are restricted because it limits the discussion of acid-base phenomenon in aqueous solutions only.

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