By Sunil Bhardwaj

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In 1919, Rutherford bombarded the N2 with the ?-particles which are obtained from Ra - B (OR) Ra - C (Highly Energetic) and found that some new particles are produced. He analysed the particles and found that these are the protons. He proposed the reaction: $$\underset { Target }{ _{ 7 }^{ 14 }{ N } } + \underset { Projectile }{ _{ 2 }^{ 4 }{ He } } \longrightarrow \underset { Recoil \ target }{ _{ 8 }^{ 17 }{ O } } + \underset { Ejected \ particles }{ _{ 1 }^{ 1 }{ H } } $$This process in which atom of highly stable element (N) is converted into the atom of new element (O), artificially is known as atomic transmutation (OR) Artificial disintegration, and the reaction is known as Atomic transmutation reaction.

The following are the examples of atomic transmutation reactions: $$ _{ 13 }^{ 27 }{ Al } + _{ 2 }^{ 4 }{ He } \longrightarrow _{ 14 }^{ 30 }{ Si } + _{ 1 }^{ 1 }{ H } $$ $$ _{ 3 }^{ 6 }{ Li } + _{ 0 }^{ 1 }{ n } \longrightarrow _{ 1 }^{ 3 }{ H } + _{ 2 }^{ 4 }{ He } $$ $$ _{ 5 }^{ 10 }{ B } + _{ 0 }^{ 1 }{ n } \longrightarrow _{ 3 }^{ 7 }{ Li } + _{ 2 }^{ 4 }{ He } $$ $$ _{ 6 }^{ 12 }{ C } + _{ 1 }^{ 2 }{ D } \longrightarrow _{ 6 }^{ 13 }{ C } + _{ 1 }^{ 1 }{ H } $$ $$ _{ 1 }^{ 2 }{ D } + _{ 1 }^{ 2 }{ D } \longrightarrow _{ 1 }^{ 3 }{ T } + _{ 1 }^{ 1 }{ H } $$