By Sunil Bhardwaj

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In the atomic transmutation reaction the recoil target obtained may be stable or unstable. If it is unstable, it undergo the induced radioactivity by emitting either ({ eta }^{ + } (_{ 1 }^{ 0 }{ e })) or ){ eta }^{ - } (_{ -1 }^{ 0 }{ e })). When the mass no. of recoil target is less than corresponding stable in that case the emission is ({ eta }^{ + }). But in some cases nucleus is not having sufficient energy of ({ eta }^{ + }) emission, in that case nuclei acquire the energy (stability) by capturing the electron from the nearest orbit to nucleus which is K - orbit (shell) Or L - orbit, so the no. of neutrons increases and the no. of protons decreases. $$ ecause Proton + electron = neutron.$$ Equations are given below: $$ _{ 25 }^{ 54 }Mn + _{ -1 }e (k-shell) longrightarrow _{ 24 }^{ 54 }Cr + gamma -rays $$ $$ _{ 23 }^{ 49 }V + _{ -1 }e (k-shell) longrightarrow _{ 22 }^{ 49 }Ti + gamma -rays $$ $$ _{ 26 }^{ 55 }Fe + _{ -1 }e (k-shell) longrightarrow _{ 25 }^{ 55 }Mn + gamma -rays $$ It was predicted by Yukawa in 1936 and was actually observed by Alvarez in 1938.