Water Resources

Sunil Bhardwaj

so our next topic is water resources what is important to us because human body itself is made up of seventy-two percent of water water moves through different biotech and every component in hydrological cycle also there are many things which depends on water like our industries like production of energy like agriculture we also there are some also plants and animals who live in water so it's their habited and they cannot survive without water we are using water for our domestic uses like batting cooking and drinking purposes and some of the industries they are completely dependent on water like salt industry what are of two types one is fresh water and one is saltwater freshwater which is not having a salty taste well the saltwater is having the salty taste fresh water examples are rivers lakes ponds etc while the saltwater examples are sea water ocean and marine water they are also classified into hard water as well as soft water hard water contains mainly calcium and magnesium ions while soft water does not contains calcium and magnesium there may be other ions presenter but mainly calcium and magnesium answer absent you work recycling water cycle first of all water from the oceans that converts into the vapors with the help of the solar energy and this process known as evaporation this is the PIRs these vapors they make smaller smaller droplets and finally they make the clouds by the process of condensation now these Klaus gets heavier and they cannot hold the water more so it comes back to the earth in the form of rain or snow and that process known as precipitation all the water coming on the ground gets accumulated to the rivers and other things and come backs to the ocean and this process known as collection some of the water goes into the ground and that is called as infiltration there are some plants also that also evaporate the water and that is known as transpiration there are also some of the process by which solid itself solid ice directly evaporates into the vapor without converting into liquid and that is known as sublimation so this whole process is known as water cycle sources of fresh water we have plenty of water on the earth but most of the work almost ninety seven point five percent of water is salt water which is available in oceans only we are having two point five percent of fresh water this fresh water is also available in the glaciers or ice caps up to % and up to percent of water is available as the ground water on the surface there is only one percent water available also this water is available in the form of lakes mostly percent of the water is in lakes percent of water in soil and the remaining water asked water vapour leaving organism and reversely contains only one percent of the total water we have four different sources of new fresh water ground water surface water frozen water and rain water groundwater is also known as aquifer so an aquifer is the underground layer of water so and aquifers are defined into two are of two types aquifers are of two types one is confined aquifer and one is uncontained aquifer as the name suggests confined aquifers they are sandwiched between two layers of less permeable membrane so they are confined they cannot be used because they are completely protected or sandwiched between two different layers while unconfined aquifers they are available in the upper part of the surface and they can be used the aquifers having water table in it are also or you can find aquifers so they are available on the surface and can be used by the human beings next comes the surface water surface water means in the tongue in the form of River Lake Pend etc so all these water are generally used for drinking and other purposes also next is frozen water frozen water available on the mountain caps can be used and it's also available in the rivers and during the summer season when the temperature is high and this frozen salt gets melt gets melted and it's coming in the form of river and finally the rain water whatever water is coming from the rain is rain water and that can also be used as for drinking and other purposes over-exploitation of groundwater then we are taking the groundwater we are extracting too much of groundwater as compared to the filling rate of the groundwater then it will be called as the over exploitation of groundwater generally we are using water for main three purposes first is agricultural industries and domestic so in the Gulag global scenario almost % of water is used for agriculture while % we use use for the industries while in developed countries where the industries are very strong so they are using % of water for industries while % of water for agriculture in developing developing countries we are using almost percent percent in India also we are using for the agriculture while percent for industries and only percent for domestic uses so because of the over exploitation of groundwater we have several problems concerned about this so one is the reduced surface water flow so if there are no or less groundwater then there will be very less surface water also there will be sharp decline in water table water table will go down then there will be loss of vegetation as well as wildlife fabricate because of less water availability a salinity problem as the water is going down concentration of water increases that means amount of salt in that increases and finally ground substance subsidence ground subsidence means the land goes inside because of the hollow inside the land so that is ground subsidence water coyotes flood and drops flood can be considered as accumulation of large amount of water at one place at any place which cannot be handled by the draining system of tak per to be area so that means there is accumulation of huge amount of water which is which cannot go away because of from the drainage system of the area and it depends on the climate nature of the collecting basins streams soils vegetation cover amount of snow and the rainfall so this is flood where there is accumulation of a huge amount of water and floods can be divided into three part one is flash flood river floods and coastal floods flash fluid due to the sudden heavy rainfall or dam failure and a rework obstructions there is certainly rise in the water level and that kind of fluid is called as flash flood and this happens within very short period of time second is River floods this happens every year at the bank of the biggest bigger rivers and because of the heavy rainfall all the water level in the river rises and it covers the nearby area of the river banks so that is precipitation precipitation or large area and or by melting of the snow so level of the river hot rises that kind of flood is known as the river field and coastal flood it may be due to cyclone activities like recons winds and induced storms so this can this will be coming only on the coastal regions where there are there are possibility of cyclone and hairy cones for example is tsunami when there was because of a disaster it came it came and what about brought a drug is a condition in which our region suffer from severe deficiency in its water supply so there will be lack of water supply or the lack of water availability this is mainly due to constantly below average rainfall they are also of three types one is metrological rot hydrological rot and agriculture called methodological rot means decrease in actual reinforce that means if in some area there is there is rainfall which is below average rainfall then we can consider that it is a methodological trot second is hydrological drought if the water reservoirs are getting dried up in that particular area so we can say that hydrological drops are happening and finally agricultural rot so this is happening because of the enact inadequate soil moisture that means moisture from the soil goes away and lands becomes not becomes unuseful for the agriculture purposes conflict over water in this case we will study three different cases for example Nile water conflict this is between Egypt and Ethiopia they are fighting for the water of Niles secondly interstate dispute where the mineral and Karnataka are fighting over the Kaveri water and then finally industry was a community like coca-cola garages company in Kerala where the community people they are fighting against coca-cola company for the water for the ground water so what are the solutions to water crisis first of all educate people to use less water install water saving devices like self-closing tap and dual flush toilets and use a decentralized wastewater recycling system in homes apartments campuses and industries using natural methods like planted filters how can we say what for the agriculture purposes replace water hungry crops by those requiring less water for example price rises the water hungry croc secondly promote co-op that can tolerate salty water get more crops per drop use drip irrigation sprinkler irrigation etc return to indigenous species that are which means that understand dropped switch to organic and natural reforming and educate people to change to vegetarian diet because that requires very less water for production and for the saving water in industries we can go further catch the rainwater where it falls so collect the rainwater secondly implement a rainwater harvesting in urban and rural areas that will use the state where government has made it convert it compulsory to install the rainwater harvesting system in each and every buildings retain water on land as long as possible through check dams and counter dams contrabands allowing it to percolate into the ground restore traditional systems of ponds and pH there are some many more other ways we can we can say water that is to adopt decentralized water system to water supply and sanitation plan many as many small local catchment in place of large ones implement a large number of small scale schemes and adopt fairer policies give control of water sources to the community prize water properly and remove any negatives in the in the excess of water

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